Conspiracy Cafe

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HOMESCHOOLING

The key to establishing any police state is to get control of the children. If we can remove them from the influence of their parents, we can set up a system akin to a political re-education camp. I recall a Hitler speech that went like this: I don't care about you. You will grow old, wither and die; but I've got your children and they are in my schools. So you see that the greatest battle for the hearts and minds is over the education of your children.



In Winston Churchill's wartime address to Parliament which coined the we shall fight on the beaches speech, we see language at its best; but in the greater, long term struggle he left out several of the most important battle locations. They are of course the school room, the board room, the congresses and parliaments and the churches. If enemies foreign or domestic access dominion over these areas a nation is doomed.

I have, myself, full confidence that if all do their duty, if nothing is neglected, and if the best arrangements are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once more able to defend our island home, to ride out the storm of war, and to outlive the menace of tyranny, if necessary for years, if necessary alone. At any rate, that is what we are going to try to do. That is the resolve of His Majesty's Government — every man of them. That is the will of Parliament and the nation. The British Empire and the French Republic, linked together in their cause and in their need, will defend to the death their native soil, aiding each other like good comrades to the utmost of their strength.

Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous States have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender, and if, which I do not for a moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.

Universal education is the most corroding and disintegrating poison that liberalism has ever invented for its own destruction.

Adolf Hitler

My education was interrupted only by my schooling

Winston Churchill

I've never let my school interfere with my education.

Mark Twain

The object of education is to prepare the young to educate themselves throughout their lives.

Robert M. Hutchins



You see it is your sovereign duty to educate yourself and your family and teach yourself to learn not to be programmed. Here in Ontario the next step entails not teaching children hand writing anymore. If there is any clue we are being enslaved, this is it. The ultimate freedom was to pen your thoughts on paper and leave them as a legacy. I used to tell my children, "How to you speak to dead people? Read their books. It's a one way conversation, but the answers to many questions we face are contained therein." 

We come across many videos that are quite educational. Many miss the questions of the ages answered therein. The first will solve the global warming conundrum in a quick observation. See if you notice it.


The pen is mightier than the sword or gun or in my case the highlighter pen. I go through many outlining the news and seeing through the lies to bring you this humble little show. The ones who read prepared scripts lead you astray and are well paid for it. Hopefully you learn to think for yourself as God intended you to.

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  • Atom: The Illusion Of Reality S01 E03
    by Conspiracy Cafe on September 8, 2018 at 9:20 PM
    31 Views - 0 Comments

    4 Feb. 2008

    Al-Khalili explores how studying the atom forced us to rethink the nature of reality itself, encountering ideas that seem like they are from science fiction but in fact are a central part of modern science. He discovers that there might be parallel universes in which different versions of us exist and finds out that empty space is not empty at all, but seething with activity.


  • The Untold History of the United States ...
    by George Freund on August 27, 2018 at 11:28 PM
    44 Views - 0 Comments

    The Untold History of the United States (also known as Oliver Stone's Untold History of the United States) is a 2012 documentary series directed, produced, and narrated by Oliver Stone.

    Oliver Stone and American University historian Peter J. Kuznick began working on the project in 2008. Stone, Kuznick and British screenwriter Matt Graham cowrote the script. The documentary miniseries for Showtime had a working title Oliver Stone's Secret History of America. It covers "the reasons behind the Cold War with the Soviet Union, U.S. President Harry Truman's decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan, and changes in America's global role since the fall of Communism." Stone is the director and narrator of all ten episodes. The series is a reexamination of some of the underreported and darkest parts of American modern history, using little-known documents and newly uncovered archival material. The series looks beyond official versions of events to the deeper causes and implications and explores how events from the past still have resonant themes for the present day. Stone said, "From the outset I've looked at this project as a legacy to my children and a way to understand the times I've lived through. I hope it can contribute to a more global insight into our American history."


    Companion book

    The ten-part series is supplemented by a 750-page companion book, The Untold History of the United States, also written by Stone and Kuznick, released on Oct 30, 2012 by Simon & Schuster.

    Kuznick objected to the working title "Secret History", claiming that "the truth is that many of our 'secrets' have been hidden on the front page of the New York Times. If people think the secrets will be deep, dark conspiracies, they'll be disappointed. We'll be drawing on the best recent scholarship". It was subsequently retitled The Untold History of the United States.

    The Untold History of the United States examines World War II. It offers special attention to the Spanish Civil War, Roosevelt's desire to enter the war on the side of the allies, the strategic Japanese decisions that lead up to Pearl Harbor Attack, and the often overlooked role that the Soviet Union had in winning the war.

    US had extensive contact with Ayatollah Khomeini before Iran revolution

    The 1980 CIA study says “in November 1963 Ayatollah Khomeini sent a message to the United States Government through [Tehran University professor] Haj Mirza Khalil Kamarei”, in which he explained “that he was not opposed to American interests in Iran” and that “on the contrary, he thought the American presence was necessary as a counterbalance to Soviet and possibly British influence”. Iranian leaders have vehemently denied that Khomeini ever sent such a message.

    The Guardian did not have access to the newly declassified documents and was not able to independently verify them. The BBC published the CIA document, but has not published further documents. Most of them appear to be diplomatic cables from Paris and Tehran embassies containing Khomeini’s first-person messages, which the corporation said were in the public domain.

    The 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état was a covert operation carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–1954. Code-named Operation PBSUCCESS, it installed the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas, the first in a series of U.S.-backed authoritarian rulers in Guatemala.

    U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, the advocate of the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état that installed the right-wing dictatorship

    The Guatemalan Revolution began in 1944, when a popular uprising toppled the authoritarian Jorge Ubico and brought Juan José Arévalo to power via Guatemala's first democratic election. The new president introduced a minimum wage and near-universal suffrage, aiming to turn Guatemala into a liberal democracy. Arévalo was succeeded by Árbenz in 1951, who instituted popular land reforms which granted property to landless peasants.[1] The Guatemalan Revolution was disliked by the United States Federal government, which was predisposed by the Cold War to see it as communist. This perception grew after Árbenz took power and legalized the Communist Party. The United Fruit Company (UFC), whose highly profitable business had been affected by the end to exploitative labor practices in Guatemala, engaged in an influential lobbying campaign to persuade the U.S. to overthrow the Guatemalan government. U.S. President Harry Truman authorized Operation PBFORTUNE to topple Árbenz in 1952; although the operation was quickly aborted, it was a precursor to PBSUCCESS.

    Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected U.S. President in 1952, promising to take a harder line against communism; the links that his staff members John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles had to the UFC also predisposed them to act against the Guatemalan government. Additionally, the U.S. Federal government drew exaggerated conclusions about the extent of communist influence from the presence of a small number of communists among Árbenz's advisers. Eisenhower authorized the CIA to carry out Operation PBSUCCESS in August 1953. The CIA armed, funded, and trained a force of 480 men led by Carlos Castillo Armas. The coup was preceded by U.S. efforts to criticize and isolate Guatemala internationally. Castillo Armas' force invaded Guatemala on 18 June 1954, backed by a heavy campaign of psychological warfare. This included a radio station which broadcast anti-government propaganda and a version of military events favorable to the rebellion, claiming to be genuine news, as well as bombings of Guatemala City and a naval blockade of Guatemala. The invasion force fared poorly militarily, and most of its offensives were defeated. However, psychological warfare and the possibility of a U.S. invasion intimidated the Guatemalan army, which eventually refused to fight. Árbenz briefly and unsuccessfully attempted to arm civilians to resist the invasion, before resigning on 27 June. Castillo Armas became president ten days later, following negotiations in San Salvador.

    Described as the definitive deathblow to democracy in Guatemala, the coup was widely criticized internationally, and contributed to long-lasting anti-U.S. sentiment in Latin America. Attempting to justify the coup, the CIA launched Operation PBHISTORY, which sought evidence of Soviet influence in Guatemala among documents from the Árbenz era: the effort was a failure. Castillo Armas quickly assumed dictatorial powers, banning opposition parties, imprisoning and torturing political opponents, and reversing the social reforms of the revolution. Nearly four decades of civil war followed, as leftist guerrillas fought a series of U.S.-backed authoritarian regimes whose brutalities included a genocide of the Maya peoples.

    Covert United States involvement in regime change

    1949 Syrian coup d'état

    1949–1953 Albania

    1951–56 Tibet

    1953 Iranian coup d'état

    1954 Guatemalan coup d'état

    1956–57 Syria crisis

    1957–58 Indonesian rebellion

    1959–2000 Cuba, assassination attempts on Fidel Castro

    1959 Cambodian "Bangkok Plot"

    1960 Congo coup

    1961 Cuba, Bay of Pigs Invasion

    1961 Cuba, Operation Mongoose

    1961 Dominican Republic

    1963 South Vietnamese coup

    1964 Bolivian coup d'état

    1964 Brazilian coup d'état

    1966 Ghana coup d'état

    1970 Cambodian coup

    1971 Bolivian coup d'état

    1970–73 Chile

    1979–89 Afghanistan, Operation Cyclone

    1980–92 Angola, UNITA

    1981–87 Nicaragua, Contras

    1982 Chad

    1991 Haiti

    1996 Iraq coup attempt

    2000 Yugoslavia

    2004 Haiti

    2011–2017 Syria, Timber Sycamore


  • PRIDE OF AFRICA CAPETOWN TO VICTORIA FAL...
    by Conspiracy Cafe on August 26, 2018 at 1:20 PM
    36 Views - 0 Comments

    Rovos Rail is a private railway company operating out of Capital Park Station in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Rovos Rail runs its train-hotel to a regular schedule on various routes throughout Southern Africa, from South Africa to Namibia and Tanzania. The trains consist of restored Rhodesia Railways (NRZ) coaches with two lounges, two restaurant cars, private sleeping compartments, each with private ensuite facilities.


    The train has three types of accommodation on board, the smallest being a Pullman, at 76 square feet; the largest being the Royal Suite, which is half a train car, and 172 square feet. All types of cabins have ensuite shower, sink and toilet. The Royal Suite also has a Victorian-style bathtub.


    The company was started in 1989 by Rohan Vos and is still family owned. Rovos Rail employs a staff of 210 including the on-board staff to those working to restore carriages in the company's Capital Park depot.


    Rovos Rail operates the following routes:

    Pretoria to Cape Town or vice versa

    Pretoria to Durban or vice versa

    Pretoria to Victoria Falls or vice versa

    Cape Town to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and vice versa

    Pretoria to Swakopmund, Namibia or vice versa

    as well as golf safaris and private train charters.


    Every two years Rovos Rail runs a Cape to Cairo route (using private chartered aircraft and lake cruiser for parts of the journey). This was offered for the first time in 2008, again in 2010 and is scheduled to repeat two similar trips in 2012.


  • USS FORRESTAL AIRCRAFT CARRIER FIRE TRIA...
    by Conspiracy Cafe on August 26, 2018 at 11:57 AM
    28 Views - 0 Comments

    Made in the wake of the disastrous 1967 fire aboard the USS Forrestal, TRIAL BY FIRE recounts the incident and discusses some of the mistakes made by fire fighting teams that made the situation much worse than it might have been. It also shows the numerous systemic and leadership failures that nearly resulted in loss of the carrier. The film also shows the courageous work of the carrier's crew and that of support vessels, to stop the flames and rescue the wounded, and makes clear that the Navy has every intention of changing policies and procedures to make sure that this type of incident does not occur in the future.

    The background on this film is this: In July 1967, a devastating fire broke out on board the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal. An electrical anomaly had caused the discharge of a Zuni rocket on the flight deck, triggering a chain-reaction of explosions that killed 134 sailors and injured 161. At the time, Forrestal was engaged in combat operations in the Gulf of Tonkin, during the Vietnam War. The ship survived, but with damage exceeding US$72 million (equivalent to $511 million today), not including the damage to aircraft. Future United States Senator John McCain and future four-star admiral and CINCPACFLT Ronald J. Zlatoper were among the survivors.

    The fire left 134 men dead and 161 more injured.[2] Many aircraft and a large amount of ordnance were jettisoned to prevent them from catching fire or exploding. Twenty-one aircraft also sustained enough damage from fire, explosions and salt water, to be stricken from naval inventory, including seven F-4B Phantom IIs and three RA-5C Vigilantes. The fire also revealed that Forrestal required a heavy duty, armored forklift for use in the emergency jettisoning of aircraft (particularly heavier types such as the RA-5C Vigilante) as well as heavy or damaged ordnance. Sailors had been forced to manually jettison numerous 250 and 500 lb bombs by rolling them along the deck and off the side.

    On 31 July, Forrestal arrived at Naval Air Station Cubi Point in the Philippines, to undertake repairs sufficient to allow the ship to return to the United States. With repairs completed, she departed on 11 August, arriving at Naval Station Mayport on 12 September to disembark the remaining aircraft and air group personnel stationed in Florida. Two days later, Forrestal finally returned to Norfolk to be welcomed home by over 3,000 family members and friends of the crew, gathered on Pier 12 and onboard Randolph, Forrestal's host ship.

    The US Navy uses the Forrestal fire and the lessons learned from it when teaching damage control and ammunition safety. The flight deck film of the flight operations, entitled "Learn or Burn", became mandatory viewing for firefighting trainees. All new navy recruits are required to view a training video titled Trial by Fire: A Carrier Fights for Life, produced from footage of the fire and damage control efforts, both successful and unsuccessful. On the one hand there were damage control teams spraying fire fighting foam on the deck to contain the flames, which was the correct procedure, while on the other hand, crewmen on the other side of the deck sprayed seawater, washing away the foam and worsening the situation by washing burning fuel through the hole in the flight deck into the decks below. The burning fuel was not easily extinguished and was spread by water. Due to the first bomb blast, which killed nearly all of the specially trained firefighters on the ship, the remaining crew, who had no formal firefighting training, were forced to improvise.

    In response, a "wash down" system, which floods the flight deck with foam or water, was incorporated into all carriers, with the first being installed aboard Franklin D. Roosevelt during her 1968-69 refit. Many other fire safety improvements also stemmed from this incident.

    The Farrier Fire Fighting School Learning Site in Norfolk is named after Chief Aviation Boatswain's Mate Gerald W. Farrier, a sailor who died in the initial explosion in an attempt to delay the detonation of ordnance with the tool he had available to him- a single PKP extinguisher.

    Eighteen crewmen were buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Names of the dead are also listed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. If you are reading this today, please say a prayer for these gallant men.


  • SECRETS OF THE DEAD S5 EP4 The Sinking o...
    by Conspiracy Cafe on July 20, 2018 at 5:42 PM
    88 Views - 0 Comments

    The moral of the story is man's sense of invincibilty. As in driving, you have to adjust your speed to the conditions. If they both cut their speed while making radar contact nothing would have happened. If one did the collision may very well have been avoided. 


    DIRECT LINK:

    http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/the-sinking-of-the-andrea-doria/142/

    SS Andrea Doria was an ocean liner for the Italian Line (Società di navigazione Italia) home ported in Genoa, Italy, most famous for her sinking in 1956, when 46 people were killed.


    Named after the 16th-century Genoese admiral Andrea Doria, the ship had a gross register tonnage of 29,100 and a capacity of about 1,200 passengers and 500 crew. For a country attempting to rebuild its economy and reputation after World War II, Andrea Doria was an icon of Italian national pride. Of all Italy's ships at the time, Andrea Doria was the largest, fastest, and supposedly safest. Launched on 16 June 1951, the ship undertook its maiden voyage on 14 January 1953.


    On 25 July 1956, while Andrea Doria was approaching the coast of Nantucket, Massachusetts, bound for New York City, the eastbound MS Stockholm of the Swedish American Line collided with it in one of history's most infamous maritime disasters. Struck in the side, the top-heavy Andrea Doria immediately started to list severely to starboard, which left half of its lifeboats unusable. The consequent shortage of lifeboats could have resulted in significant loss of life, but the efficiency of the ship's technical design allowed it to stay afloat for over 11 hours after the ramming. The good behavior of the crew, improvements in communications, and the rapid response of other ships averted a disaster similar in scale to that of Titanic in 1912. While 1,660 passengers and crew were rescued and survived, 46 people died with the ship as a consequence of the collision. The evacuated luxury liner capsized and sank the following morning. This accident remains the worst maritime disaster to occur in United States waters since the sinking of the SS Eastland in 1915.


    The incident and its aftermath were heavily covered by the news media. While the rescue efforts were both successful and commendable, the cause of the collision with Stockholm and the loss of Andrea Doria generated much interest in the media and many lawsuits. Largely because of an out-of-court settlement agreement between the two shipping companies during hearings immediately after the disaster, no determination of the cause(s) was ever formally published. Although greater blame appeared initially to fall on the Italian liner, more recent discoveries have indicated that a misreading of radar on the Swedish ship initiated the collision course, leading to errors on both ships.

    SS CAPE ANN

    For actions on July 25, 1956

    Gallant Ship Award citation:


    “Responding unhesitatingly to an SOS from the sinking Andrea Doria off Nantucket Island in the North Atlantic on the night of July 25, 1956, the Cape Ann raced fifteen miles through dangerously thick fog to the side of the stricken ship. Holding a position close to the sinking ship, the Cape Ann launched her two lifeboats, which in a series of trips brought back to the ship a total of one hundred and twenty-nine victims of the disaster, many of them injured. All were taken safely aboard, contributing to one of the greatest marine rescues in history.

    The courage, resourcefulness, sound seamanship and teamwork of her master, officers and crew in successfully completing an extraordinary rescue operation caused the name of the Cape Ann to be perpetuated as a Gallant ship.”

    SS Cape Ann, a C1-B type break-bulk cargo ship, was built by the Consolidated Steel Corp. in Los Angeles, California for the U.S. Maritime Commission. Completed on June 30, 1943, American Mail Line operated the ship as general agent from its launch through the end of World War II. After the war, United Fruit Company operated Cape Ann. The company purchased the vessel outright from the Maritime Commission, via its subsidiary Munargo Line, on March 26, 1947

    .

  • Secret War Ep1 The Special Interrogation...
    by George Freund on July 11, 2018 at 6:30 PM
    185 Views - 0 Comments


    The Special Interrogation Group (SIG) (some sources interpret this acronym as Special Identification Group or Special Intelligence Group) was a unit of the British Army during World War II. It was organized from German-speaking Jewish volunteers from the British Mandate of Palestine. The SIG performed commando and sabotage operations against Axis forces during the Western Desert Campaign.

    Formation

    The inspiration for the SIG belonged to Captain Herbert Cecil Buck, MC of the 3rd Bn., 1st Punjab Regiment and later the Scots Guards,[1] an Oxford scholar and German linguist. He had been captured in January 1942, but had soon managed to break free and had then escaped back across Libya to Egypt, partly using German uniforms and vehicles. He was surprised by the ease of his deception and felt that, with greater planning and preparation, the concept could be used more offensively, to assist raiding parties attack key targets behind enemy lines. His plan was approved and, in March 1942, he was appointed the commander of this new unit, the SIG.


    In March 1942, Col. Terence Airey, Military Intelligence Research at the War Office in London wrote that "a Special German Group as a sub-unit of M[iddle] E[ast] Commando... with the cover name 'Special Interrogation Group', to be used for infiltration behind the German lines in the Western Desert, under 8th Army... the strength of the Special Group would be approximately that of a platoon... The personnel are fluent German linguists... mainly Palestinian (Jews) of German origin. Many of them have had war experience with No. 51 Commando..."

    Some personnel was also recruited directly from the Palmach, Haganah and the Irgun. Other recruits came from the Free Czechoslovak Forces, the French Foreign Legion and German-speaking Jewish troops. The SIG was a part of D Squadron, First Special Service Regiment. Its strength varied between 20 and 38, according to various sources.

    Training

    According to ex-SIG member Maurice "Tiffen" Monju Tiefenbrunner, their first training base was located near Suez.[2] The SIG were trained in desert navigation, unarmed combat, handling of German weapons and explosives. They were given fake German identities and were taught German marching songs and current German slang. For their missions, they were supplied with German pay books, cigarettes, chocolates, and even love letters from fictitious sweethearts in Germany.


    Walter Essner and Herbert Brueckner, two non-Jewish Germans, had been conscripted from a POW camp to train the SIG. Before the war, both had been members of the French Foreign Legion who had been captured in November 1941 serving in the 361st Regiment of the Afrika Korps and were subsequently recruited by the British Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre (CSDIC) as double agents.

    Operations and betrayal

    The SIG drove captured German vehicles behind German lines near Bardia, set up roadblocks and carried out acts of sabotage. Dressed as German military police, they stopped and questioned German transports, gathering important military intelligence.

    On June 3, 1942, the SIG was assigned its first assault mission: They were to assist the Special Air Service, led by Lt. Col. David Stirling in destroying Luftwaffe airfields which were threatening the Malta Convoys. These airfields were located 100 miles west of Tobruk at Derna and Martuba in the Italian colony of Libya.


    During the raid, on the night of 13–14 June, Herbert Brueckner managed to run away, by faking an engine problem of the truck he was driving, and betrayed the Derna party, nearly all of whom were subsequently killed or captured. Essner, closely guarded by Tiefenbrunner throughout the raid, was handed over to the Military Police and later 'shot while trying to escape'.

    Disbandment

    On September 13–14, 1942, the SIG participated in Operation Agreement, the raid on Tobruk. Its objective was to destroy the Afrika Korps' vital supply port. The SIG were to play the role of German guards transporting three truckloads of British POWs to a camp at Tobruk. The assault failed and the British forces lost three ships and several hundred soldiers and Marines. Surviving SIG members were transferred to the Pioneer Corps.


    Tiefenbrunner account of SIG

    In January 1999, Maurice (Monju) Tiefenbrunner, a surviving member of SIG, recorded his life story in an unpublished autobiography booklet called "A Long Journey Home". On pages 37–41, he provides information on SIG unit formation and operations.

    After the SIG was disbanded, Tiefenbrunner was caught by the Italians, and sent to a POW camp in Italy. He was moved to a POW camp in Nazi German territory, where he met Vic Crockford.[5] They were released in early 1945.

    Partial list of SIG members

    Capt. Herbert Cecil Buck, MC, 3/1 Punjabis [service no.: IA. 1117]. Killed in an aircrash just after the war: 22 November 1945, aged 28.

    Maurice "Tiffen" (Monju) Tiefenbrunner (a veteran of No. 51 (Palestine) Commando and later a member of the SAS)

    Ariyeh Shai

    Dov Cohen (a veteran of No. 51 Commando and, after the war, a member of the Jewish Irgun organisation, also known - from its initials - as(EtZeL), where he was known as 'Shimshon'. Killed at the age of 32 in the aftermath of the Acre Prison Break in 1947)

    Bernard Lowenthal

    Lt.Herbert Delmonte-Nietto-Hollander (attached from the largely-Jewish Tower Hamlets Rifles, now the London Regiment) British born of German father. Attended St.Pauls School. London. Army officers Welterweight Boxing champion 1937/8. Later Staff officer at Ranby P.O.W camp Notts and subsequently interrogator at Belsen Concentration camp of Joseph Kramer.

    Israel Carmi (later, a Captain in the Jewish Brigade and an officer of the Israeli TZaHaL)

    Karl Kahane (served in the regular German army for 20 years, had an Iron Cross from World War I, a Town Clerk in Austria until forced to flee after the Anschluss)

    Dolph Zentner (a veteran of No. 51 (Palestine) Commando)

    Philip [Shraga-Iser] Kogel (a veteran of No. 51 (Palestine) Commando)

    Walter Essner (German POW)

    Herbert Brueckner (German POW)

    Charlie ‘Chunky’ Hillman (Austrian Nazi Baiter)

    Film

    The 1967 film Tobruk was about a raid of the SIG and the LRDG (Long Range Desert Group) on a German Afrika Korps fuel depot in Tobruk, starring Rock Hudson and George Peppard.


  • The Civil War S1 EP7 Most Hallowed Groun...
    by George Freund on July 3, 2018 at 4:11 PM
    110 Views - 0 Comments


    DIRECT LINKS:

    Bitchute has no popups. Choose that first. 

    https://www.bitchute.com/video/w5ULUr1M3UUG/

    http://hd.today/watch/xyP2BJ3v-the-civil-war-season-1/episode-7.html

    Siege of Petersburg

    The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War. Although it is more popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege, in which a city is usually surrounded and all supply lines are cut off, nor was it strictly limited to actions against Petersburg. The campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and then constructed trench lines that eventually extended over 30 miles (48 km) from the eastern outskirts of Richmond, Virginia, to around the eastern and southern outskirts of Petersburg. Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. Many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines.

    Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877), called Bedford Forrest in his lifetime, was a cotton farmer, slave owner, slave trader, Confederate Army general during the American Civil War, first leader of the Ku Klux Klan, and president of the Selma, Marion, & Memphis Railroad.


    Prior to the outbreak of the war, Forrest amassed substantial wealth as a cotton planter, horse and cattle trader, real estate broker, and slave trader. In June 1861, Forrest enlisted in the Confederate Army. He was one of the few officers on either side during the war to enlist as a private and be promoted to general officer and corps commander without any military education or training. An expert cavalry leader, Forrest eventually was given command of a corps and established new doctrines for mobile forces, earning the nickname "The Wizard of the Saddle". His methods subsequently influenced many future generations of military strategists, although the Confederate high command failed to fully utilize his talents until it was too late to win the war.

    Forrest's cavalry captured more Union guns, horses, and supplies than any other single Confederate unit. Forrest proved to be a belligerent nemesis for both Union Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman. Forrest played pivotal roles at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the capture of Murfreesboro, the pursuit and capture of Colonel Abel Streight's Raiders, Brice's Crossroads, and the Nashville Campaign. Forrest's raids in Western Tennessee in 1862, hampered implementation of Grant's notorious anti-semitic General Order #11.

    In April 1864, in what has been called "one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history," troops under Forrest's command massacred Union troops who had surrendered, most of them black soldiers, along with some white Southern Tennesseans fighting for the Union, at the Battle of Fort Pillow. Vilified in the North as a war criminal, Forrest was blamed for the massacre in the Union press...

    Forrest surrendered at Selma, was paroled, and he returned to his cotton plantations. During Reconstruction, Forrest's citizenship rights were restored with the pardon he received from President Andrew Johnson on July 17, 1868, but he never could escape the Northern label of "Butcher of Fort Pillow".

    The following engagements took place in the year 1864 during the American Civil War. The Union armies, under the command of U.S. Grant, launched multiple offenses in all theaters of the war, in an attempt to prevent Confederate forces from transferring troops from one army to another.

    American Civil War spies

    Tactical or battlefield intelligence became very vital to both armies in the field during the American Civil War. Units of spies and scouts reported directly to the commanders of armies in the field. They provided details on troop movements and strengths. The distinction between spies and scouts was one that had life or death consequences. If a suspect was seized while in disguise and not in his army's uniform, the sentence was often to be hanged. A spy named Will Talbot, a member of the 35th Battalion, Virginia Cavalry, was left behind in Gettysburg after his battalion had passed through the borough on June 26–27, 1863. He was captured, taken to Emmitsburg, Maryland, and executed on orders of Brig. Gen. John Buford.


    The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the Siege of Petersburg. It took place on July 30, 1864, between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Robert E. Lee and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (under the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant).

    The Union’s ‘Shoddy’ Aristocracy

    Andersonville National Historic Site


    The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War. Most of the site lies in southwestern Macon County, adjacent to the east side of the town of Andersonville. As well as the former prison, the site contains the Andersonville National Cemetery and the National Prisoner of War Museum. The prison was made in February of 1864 and served to April of 1865.

    The site was commanded by Captain Henry Wirz, who was tried and executed after the war for war crimes. It was overcrowded to four times its capacity, with an inadequate water supply, inadequate food rations, and unsanitary conditions. Of the approximately 45,000 Union prisoners held at Camp Sumter during the war, nearly 13,000 died. The chief causes of death were scurvy, diarrhea, and dysentery.


    The United States presidential election of 1864, the 20th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864. In the midst of the American Civil War, incumbent President Abraham Lincoln of the National Union Party defeated the Democratic nominee, former General George B. McClellan. For the election, the Republican Party and some Democrats created the National Union Party, especially to attract War Democrats.

    The Radical Democracy Party was an abolitionist and anti-Confederate political party in the United States. The party was formed to contest the 1864 presidential election and it was made up largely of disaffected Radical Republicans who felt that President Abraham Lincoln was too moderate on the issues of slavery and racial equality. John C. Frémont was nominated as the party's presidential candidate, with John Cochrane as his running mate. However, their campaign failed to gain momentum and not wanting to act as a spoiler against Lincoln, they withdrew from the race in September.

    There is talk today about another American civil war. No one wins a war. Everyone loses. We the people are lied to by the demonic forces yet admire them enough to slaughter and be slaughtered. There has to be a higher common denominator. Search for it always. Conflict has to be a last resort not a first option. The cost is too onerous. On this 4th of July remember the cost. Resolve to find a better way. It starts with a prayer if you dare. 

  • 1913 Seeds of Conflict
    by Conspiracy Cafe on June 10, 2018 at 7:18 PM
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    Breaking new ground and shattering old myths, 1913: SEEDS of CONFLICT, directed by award-winning filmmaker Ben Loeterman, explores the little-known history of Palestine during the latter part of the Ottoman Empire, a time of relative harmony between Arabs and Jews. Living side by side in the multi-lingual, cosmopolitan city of Jerusalem, Jews, Christians and Muslims intermingled with a cultural fluidity enjoyed by all. How did this land of milk and honey, so diverse and rich in culture, become the site of today?s bitter and seemingly intractable struggle? Was there a turning point, a moment in time when things could have been different? Weaving the raveled threads of Arab and Jewish narratives back together, 1913: SEEDS of CONFLICT provides new and fascinating insights into the dramatic events that took place in Palestine which set the stage for the coming century of unrest.


    The film examines the divergent social forces growing in Palestine before the outbreak of World War I that caused the simultaneous rise in Jewish and Arab nationalism. Combining the perspectives of a wide range of Arab, Israeli and American scholars, the film includes information from documents previously unavailable from the Turkish Ottoman archives and largely untouched by historians. Shot on location in Beit Jamal, dramatized scenes bring many of the key figures of the era to life, with dialogue in five languages taken directly from the historical record — personal letters, government documents and newspaper accounts. 1913: SEEDS of CONFLICT offers a fresh look at the complex circumstances that transformed this once relatively peaceful outpost of the Ottoman Empire into a land perpetually torn by violence.

    * * *

    By the mid-1800s half a million Ottoman subjects — over 400,000 Muslims, 60,000 Christians and 20,000 Jews — call Palestine home. Sharing the same homeland, these diverse groups find commonality in their identity as Ottoman citizens, often gathering in the coffeehouses of Jerusalem to listen to music performed by Arabs, Christians and Jews. The Jews of Palestine are mostly Sephardic, of Mediterranean origin, and as Ottoman citizens are integrated in the political framework. In an empire dominated by Islamic culture, they speak Arabic and, like Christians, accept their secondary status.

    But this soon changes with the arrival of waves of Eastern European Jewish migrants, fleeing anti-Semitic violence at home. Jerusalem’s representative to the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul, Ruhi al-Khalidi, voices growing concerns about what he sees as the Jews’ secret agenda to build a state. This influx of foreign Jews is undermining the delicate cultural balance so carefully nurtured by prominent Ottoman Jews such as Albert Antebi, who embraces the idea of economic and cultural Zionism but fears that the land grab will lead to bitterness and arouse anti-Semitism. As the new arrivals purchase large tracts of land from mostly absentee owners, the Arabs, who had lived and cultivated the land for generations — and believed it was rightfully their property — grow ever more resentful.

    In 1903 the arrival of a second wave of Russian Jews — Ashkenazi — many with a determined socialist agenda and uninterested in assimilating into the local culture, heightens tensions. Flush with cash, Arthur Ruppin arrives from Germany to be the Zionist’s land agent while rising Arab leader Khalil Sakakini speaks out against the displacement of local farmers and calls for a new Palestinian Arab identity.


    In 1913, these growing tensions erupt between neighboring Arabs and Jews in a vineyard in Rehovot, just outside present-day Tel Aviv. A brawl provoked over the theft of a bunch of grapes turns violent, leaving one Arab farmer and one Jewish guardsman dead. Within days, the dispute escalates into an uproar about the future of each group’s claim to the same homeland. It marks a turning point in the history of the Arabs and Jews. The outbreak of World War I prevents a resolution to the conflict and the years of peaceful coexistence ends. More than a century of painful conflict has begun.

    “History is something that you can’t control,” said Amy Dockser Marcus. “If the war hadn’t broken out could things have gone in a different direction? We’ll never know. But I think it’s important to remember that there was a moment when different groups shared a city, shared a land and for a moment in time, shared history.”

  • Voyage to North Pole on Nuclear Icebreak...
    by George Freund on May 31, 2018 at 6:45 PM
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    An in-depth video of a voyage through the Arctic Ocean ice to the geographic North Pole on the nuclear powered icebreaker '50 Years of Victory'. Leaving the North Pole, we visited Franz Josef Land before sailing back to Murmansk. Along the way we saw polar bears, walruses, seals and birds.


    '50 Years of Victory' (50 лет Победы / 50 Let Pobedy) is the largest and most powerful icebreaker in the world. She is an engineering marvel and is powered by 2 nuclear reactors that produce 75,000 horsepower giving her the ability to break through ice up to 2.8 meters thick or nearly 10 feet of ice.


    The 50 Years of Victory has an endurance of 5 years before she needs refuelling with new uranium. The reactors eliminate greenhouse gas emissions that are characteristic of ships burning fossil fuels.

    The most absulte proof of the flat earth. They're on the top of a spinning ball, and they're not spinning. They are motionless ergo the earth is not spinning. Aristotle's laws of thought apply to solve the conumdrom. There is a contradiction. The law of excluded middle requires we abandon our well indoctrinated mind control program. The law of identity is left. What is is. We are not on the spinning ball they taught us. It is a VICTORY. We are in a unique biosphere. It is called Eden.


  • The Untold History of the United States ...
    by George Freund on May 3, 2018 at 5:07 PM
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    The Untold History of the United States (also known as Oliver Stone's Untold History of the United States) is a 2012 documentary series directed, produced, and narrated by Oliver Stone.

    Oliver Stone and American University historian Peter J. Kuznick began working on the project in 2008. Stone, Kuznick and British screenwriter Matt Graham cowrote the script. The documentary miniseries for Showtime had a working title Oliver Stone's Secret History of America. It covers "the reasons behind the Cold War with the Soviet Union, U.S. President Harry Truman's decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan, and changes in America's global role since the fall of Communism." Stone is the director and narrator of all ten episodes. The series is a reexamination of some of the underreported and darkest parts of American modern history, using little-known documents and newly uncovered archival material. The series looks beyond official versions of events to the deeper causes and implications and explores how events from the past still have resonant themes for the present day. Stone said, "From the outset I've looked at this project as a legacy to my children and a way to understand the times I've lived through. I hope it can contribute to a more global insight into our American history."


    Companion book

    The ten-part series is supplemented by a 750-page companion book, The Untold History of the United States, also written by Stone and Kuznick, released on Oct 30, 2012 by Simon & Schuster.

    Kuznick objected to the working title "Secret History", claiming that "the truth is that many of our 'secrets' have been hidden on the front page of the New York Times. If people think the secrets will be deep, dark conspiracies, they'll be disappointed. We'll be drawing on the best recent scholarship". It was subsequently retitled The Untold History of the United States.

    The Untold History of the United States examines World War II. It offers special attention to the Spanish Civil War, Roosevelt's desire to enter the war on the side of the allies, the strategic Japanese decisions that lead up to Pearl Harbor Attack, and the often overlooked role that the Soviet Union had in winning the war.

    The Iran crisis of 1946, also known as the Azerbaijan Crisis, followed the end of World War II and stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances.

    Anti-communist militamen display their victims in the Greek Civil War.

    The Greek Civil War was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army (backed by the United Kingdom and the United States), and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE, the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by Yugoslavia and Albania as well as by Bulgaria), most probably the first proxy war of the Cold War. The fighting resulted in the defeat of the Communist insurgents by the government forces. Founded by the Communist Party of Greece and funded by Communist nations such as Yugoslavia, the Democratic Army of Greece included many personnel who had fought as partisans against German and Italian occupation forces during the Second World War of 1939–1945.


    The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche mark from West Berlin.

    The Korean War 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union also gave some assistance to the North.

    The United States presidential election of 1948 was the 41st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948. Incumbent President Harry S. Truman, the Democratic nominee, defeated Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Truman's victory is considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history.


    Meanwhile, the Democratic party fragmented. A new Progressive Party (the name had been used earlier by Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 and Robert M. La Follette in 1924) was created afresh in 1948, with the nomination of Henry A. Wallace, who had served as Secretary of Agriculture, Vice President of the United States, and Secretary of Commerce under Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1946, President Truman had fired Wallace as Secretary of Commerce when Wallace publicly opposed Truman's firm moves to counter the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Wallace's 1948 platform opposed the Cold War policies of President Truman, including the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine. The Progressives proposed stronger government regulation and control of Big Business. They also campaigned to end discrimination against blacks and women, backed a minimum wage, and called for the elimination of the House Un-American Activities Committee, which was investigating the issue of communist spies within the U.S. government and labor unions. Wallace and his supporters believed that the committee was violating the civil liberties of government workers and labor unions.

    Teddy ran for the Progressives. They shot him.

    James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was the last Cabinet-level United States Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense.

    Forrestal was a supporter of naval battle groups centered on aircraft carriers. In 1954, the world's first supercarrier was named USS Forrestal in his honor, as is the James V. Forrestal Building, which houses the headquarters of the United States Department of Energy. He is also the namesake of the Forrestal Lecture Series at the United States Naval Academy, which brings prominent military and civilian leaders to speak to the Brigade of Midshipmen, and of the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, New Jersey.


    He didn't jump. He was pushed. There were scratch marks on the window frame. His last word named the killers. They were the U.S. covert agents Nightingale.

  • SECRETS OF THE DEAD S1 EP2 Catastrophe!
    by George Freund on April 17, 2018 at 9:20 PM
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    Secrets of the Dead is an ongoing PBS television series produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, which began in 2000. The show generally follows an investigator or team of investigators exploring what modern science can tell us about some of the great mysteries of history. Most programs incorporate primary source material, first hand accounts, dramatic reenactments, and computer-generated imagery (CGI) to tell the story.

    Evidence leading to the conclusion that a major worldwide catastrophe occurred just prior to the start of the Dark Ages in Europe is reviewed.

    The extreme weather events of 535–536 were the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2000 years. The event is thought to have been caused by an extensive atmospheric dust veil, possibly resulting from a large volcanic eruption in the tropics, or debris from space impacting the Earth. Its effects were widespread, causing unseasonal weather, crop failures and famines worldwide.

    The Byzantine historian Procopius recorded of 536, in his report on the wars with the Vandals, "during this year a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness... and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear".

    The Gaelic Irish Annals record the following:

    "A failure of bread in the year 536 AD" – the Annals of Ulster

    "A failure of bread from the years 536–539 AD" – the Annals of Inisfallen

    Further phenomena were reported by a number of independent contemporary sources:

    Low temperatures, even snow during the summer (snow reportedly fell in August in China during the Northern and Southern dynasties, which caused the harvest there to be delayed)[9]

    Crop failures

    "A dense, dry fog" in the Middle East, China and Europe

    Drought in Peru, which affected the Moche culture

    Tree ring analysis by dendrochronologist Mike Baillie, of the Queen's University of Belfast, shows abnormally little growth in Irish oak in 536 and another sharp drop in 542, after a partial recovery. Similar patterns are recorded in tree rings from Sweden and Finland, in California's Sierra Nevada and in rings from Chilean Fitzroya trees.[citation needed] Ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show evidence of substantial sulfate deposits in around 533–534 ± 2, which is evidence of an extensive acidic dust veil.

    Possible explanations

    It has been conjectured that the changes were due to ashes or dust thrown into the air after the eruption of a volcano (a phenomenon known as "volcanic winter"), or after the impact of a comet or meteorite. The evidence of sulfate deposits in ice cores strongly supports the volcano hypothesis; the sulfate spike is even more intense than what accompanied the lesser episode of climatic aberration in 1816, popularly known as the "Year Without a Summer", which has been connected to the explosion of the volcano Mount Tambora in Sumbawa.

    In 1984, R. B. Stothers postulated that the event might have been caused by the volcano Rabaul in what is now New Britain, near Papua New Guinea.

    In 1999, David Keys in his book Catastrophe: A Quest for the Origins of the Modern World (supported by work of the American volcanologist Ken Wohletz), suggested that the volcano Krakatoa exploded at the time and caused the changes. It is suggested that an eruption of Krakatoa described as occurring in 416 by the Javanese Book of Kings actually took place in 535–536, there being no other evidence of such an eruption in 416.

    In 2009, Dallas Abbott of Columbia University's Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory in New York published evidence from Greenland ice cores that multiple comet impacts caused the haze. The spherules found in the ice may originate from terrestrial debris ejected into the atmosphere by an impact event.

    In 2010, Robert Dull, John Southon and colleagues presented evidence suggesting a link between the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) eruption of the Ilopango caldera in central El Salvador and the 536 event.[20] Although earlier published radiocarbon evidence suggested a two-sigma age range of 408–536, which is consistent with the global climate downturn, the connection between 536 and Ilopango was not explicitly made until research on Central American Pacific margin marine sediment cores by Steffen Kutterolf and colleagues showed that the phreatoplinian TBJ eruption was much larger than previously thought. The radioactive carbon-14 in successive growth increments of a single tree that had been killed by a TBJ pyroclastic flow was measured in detail using accelerator mass spectrometry; the results supported the date of 535 as the year in which the tree died. A conservative bulk tephra volume for the TBJ event of ~84 km3 was calculated, indicating a large Volcanic explosivity index 6+ event and a magnitude of 6.9. The results suggest that the Ilopango TBJ eruption size, latitude and age are consistent with the ice core sulphate records of Larsen et al. 2008.

    A 2015 study further supported the theory of a major eruption in "535 or early 536", with North American volcanoes considered a likely candidate. It also identified signals of a second eruption in 539-40, likely to have been in the tropics, which would have sustained the cooling effects of the first eruption through to around 550.

    Historic consequences

    The 536 event and ensuing famine have been suggested as an explanation for the deposition of hoards of gold by Scandinavian elites at the end of the Migration Period. The gold may have been deposited as a sacrifice to appease the gods and get the sunlight back.

    The decline of Teotihuacán, a huge city in Mesoamerica, is also correlated with the droughts related to the climate changes, with signs of civil unrest and famines.

    David Keys' book speculates that the climate changes may have contributed to various developments, such as the emergence of the Plague of Justinian, the decline of the Avars, the migration of Mongolian tribes towards the West, the end of the Sassanid Empire, the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the rise of Islam, the expansion of Turkic tribes, and the fall of Teotihuacán. In 2000, a 3BM Television production (for WNET and Channel Four) capitalized upon Keys' book. The documentary, under the name Catastrophe! How the World Changed, was broadcast in the US as part of PBS's Secrets of the Dead series. However, Keys and Wohletz' ideas are not widely accepted now. Reviewing Keys' book, the British archaeologist Ken Dark commented that "much of the apparent evidence presented in the book is highly debatable, based on poor sources or simply incorrect. [...] Nonetheless, both the global scope and the emphasis on the 6th century AD as a time of wide-ranging change are commendable, and the book contains some fascinating and obscure information which will be new to many. However, it fails to demonstrate its central thesis and does not offer a convincing explanation for the many changes discussed".

    If only they instituted a carbon tax, they would have been saved.

    PART 1:

  • The Birth of Empire - The East India Co...
    by George Freund on April 10, 2018 at 5:50 PM
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    The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, that was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies" (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.


    The fall of Tipu Sultan and the Sultanate of Mysore, during the Battle of Seringapatam in 1799

    The Opium Trade

    In the 18th century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with Qing dynasty China and so, in 1773, the company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal, India, by prohibiting the licensing of opium farmers and private cultivation. The monopoly system established in 1799 continued with minimal changes until 1947. As the opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China. So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.

    Despite the Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799 by the Jiaqing Emperor, the drug was smuggled into China from Bengal by traffickers and agency houses such as Jardine, Matheson & Co and Dent & Co. in amounts averaging 900 tons a year. The proceeds of the drug-smugglers landing their cargoes at Lintin Island were paid into the company's factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.

    The Nemesis destroying Chinese war junks during the Second Battle of Chuenpi, 7 January 1841, by Edward Duncan

    The company established a group of trading settlements centred on the Straits of Malacca called the Straits Settlements in 1826 to protect its trade route to China and to combat local piracy. The settlements were also used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners.

    In 1838 with the amount of smuggled opium entering China approaching 1,400 tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty for opium smuggling and sent a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu, to curb smuggling. This resulted in the First Opium War (1839–42). After the war Hong Kong island was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opened to the opium traders of Britain and other nations. The Jardines and Apcar and Company dominated the trade, although P&O also tried to take a share. A Second Opium War fought by Britain and France against China lasted from 1856 until 1860 and led to the Treaty of Tientsin, which legalised the importation of opium. Legalisation stimulated domestic Chinese opium production and increased the importation of opium from Turkey and Persia. This increased competition for the Chinese market led to India's reducing its opium output and diversifying its exports

    Assault of Delhi and capture of the Cashmere Gate, 14 September 1857

    The Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the Indian Mutiny) resulted in widespread devastation in India: many condemned the East India Company for permitting the events to occur. In the aftermath of the Rebellion, under the provisions of the Government of India Act 1858, the British Government nationalised the company. The Crown took over its Indian possessions, its administrative powers and machinery, and its armed forces.

    The company remained in existence in vestigial form, continuing to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British Government (and the supply of Saint Helena) until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 came into effect, on 1 January 1874. This Act provided for the formal dissolution of the company on 1 June 1874, after a final dividend payment and the commutation or redemption of its stock. The Times commented on 8 April 1873:

    It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other trading Company ever attempted, and such as none, surely, is likely to attempt in the years to come.

    CONTINUED AT LINKS ABOVE:


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