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WHEN REALITY IS CONSPIRACY THEN BY DEFINITION CONSPIRACY MUST BE REALITY!

It appears the forces of darkness have pulled the plug on Putlocker.is. However, stay tuned media junkies there is another location to get your fix.


They are being reinserted over the next couple of months. You will find some already. You will find the rest over time. It is an arduous struggle the maintenance of freedom. The lies are exposed here. That makes evil feel threatened. The best books are banned or burned. The best videos are pulled as well. Every one is supported by evidence linked for your perusal. The enemies of freedom hate the truth because it sets us free, and they have determined us to be slaves. Click in this site and emancipate yourself. 

 
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  • Assassination of Lincoln: a History of t...
    by George Freund on November 2, 2019 at 10:05 PM
    162 Views - 0 Comments


    "Special G.A.R. edition, 26th National Encampment, Washington, September, 1892"--P. [4] of cover

    pt. 1. Assassination of Lincoln. Introductory -- Preparations for the execution of the plot -- Assassination of the President and attempted assassination of Secretary Seward -- The news communicated to the world, and its effect -- Unraveling the plot: Pursuit and capture of Booth and Herold ; Death of Booth -- Unraveling the conspiracy: Arrest of Spangler, O'Laughlin, Atzerodt, Mudd, and Arnold -- Questions preliminary to the trail: What sort of trial should be given, civil or military -- A military commission: Its nature, constitution, duties, and jurisdiction -- Constitution of the commission, and trial -- Evidence in regard to atrocities not embraced in the charge and specifications, for which Davis and his Canada Cabinet were responsible -- Evidence presented by the government to sustain its charge and specifications -- The government witnesses against Davis and his associates in this crime -- A criticism of Nicolay and Hay -- Jacob Thompson's bank account: What became of the money -- The case of Mrs. Surratt -- Father Walter -- Conclusion -- Flight and capture of John H. Surratt --

    pt. 2. Review of the trial of John H. Surratt. Indictment and trial -- A criticism of the defense -- Treatment of witnesses and evidence by the counsel for the defense, and their animus toward the government and appeals to the political prejudices of jurors -- Appendix. Argument of John A. Bingham -- Controversy between President Johnson and Judge Holt

  • Homeland: S6 EP12 America First
    by George Freund on November 2, 2019 at 6:22 PM
    156 Views - 0 Comments


    DIRECT LINK:

    http://hd.today/watch/voV2RJ8d-homeland-season-6/episode-12.html

    Homeland is an American political thriller television series developed by Howard Gordon and Alex Gansa based on the Israeli series Hatufim (English title: Prisoners of War), which was created by Gideon Raff.

    The series stars Claire Danes as Carrie Mathison, a Central Intelligence Agency officer with bipolar disorder, and Damian Lewis as Nicholas Brody, a United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper. Mathison had come to believe that Brody, who was held captive by al-Qaeda as a prisoner of war, was "turned" by the enemy and poses a threat to the United States.


    "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/America_First_(Homeland)" target="_blank">America First" is the sixth season finale of the American television drama series Homeland, and the 72nd episode overall. It premiered on Showtime on April 9, 2017.

    Plot

    Dar Adal (F. Murray Abraham) is revealed to have had Senator Coto (Alfredo Narciso) kidnapped and handcuffed inside a freezer room. Dar rebukes Coto for cutting him out of the loop and tortures him for information on the conspiracy involving Quinn. Dar also kidnaps Max (Maury Sterling) who had just escaped from the underground troll farm maintained by Brett O’Keefe (Jake Weber). Using Max, Dar finds that Quinn, who doesn't even use email, has been linked to a radical, Alt-right on-line persona.


    Carrie (Claire Danes) and Quinn (Rupert Friend) rush to President-elect Keane's (Elizabeth Marvel) headquarters. Keane's staff receives information on a possible bomb in the building. An evacuation is initiated. Dar calls Carrie with the information he got from Coto: the bomb threat is a ruse to get Keane out of the building, where she can be assassinated, while Quinn is to be framed as the killer. Carrie steps in front of the vehicle containing Keane before it leaves. The other two cars in the motorcade are rocked by an explosion as they exit the parking garage. Carrie, Keane, and Agent Thoms (James Mount) retreat back into the building. McClendon's special ops team enters the building; they come across Thoms and execute him while hunting for Keane. Quinn finds Carrie and Keane and loads them into the back of an SUV. He pulls out of the garage and speeds towards the barricade, his path lined by armed soldiers who open fire as he goes by. Quinn gets his passengers to safety but dies from bullet wounds in the process.

    Six weeks later

    34 days after Keane's inauguration, Keane's administration remains mired in controversy. O'Keefe continues publicly to criticize Keane. In Washington, the President maintains limited contact with the intelligence community, leaving many officials to worry if they face termination, or even arrest.


    Carrie has taken a position working under President Keane as a temporary liaison to the intelligence community. At a meeting, intelligence officials bristle at their lack of access to Keane, while Carrie tries to assure them that their jobs are safe. Keane offers Carrie a permanent position as a senior advisor to the President. Carrie is honored but asks for some time to consider the offer.

    Saul (Mandy Patinkin) visits Dar who is now in prison. Dar admits that he lost control of the plan he set into motion, but still doesn't think he was wrong in his intentions as he finds Keane "distinctly un-American".


    Back in New York, Carrie goes through Quinn's things, finding an envelope of pictures of Quinn's son John Jr., whom he had never met, and also of Carrie. While moved by the pictures, Carrie gets a frantic call from Saul who is being arrested. She turns on the news to see reports that dozens of incumbent officials from the State Department, the Department of Defense, and the CIA have been arrested due to being connected to the assassination attempt.

    An enraged Carrie tries to see Keane but is not allowed into her office. Keane hears Carrie's pleas that innocent people are being arrested but does nothing as Carrie is escorted out of the building. The episode ends with Carrie looking out at the Capitol Building introspectively.

  • Daniel Boone and the Opening of the Amer...
    by George Freund on November 1, 2019 at 9:38 PM
    131 Views - 0 Comments

    This video documentary take you back in time to the battleground that was the Kentucky frontier; it traces the life of Daniel Boone from his birth near Reading, Pennsylvania in 1734, through his years in Kentucky and to his death in St. Charles County, Missouri in 1820. Against the backdrop of the American Revolution, Daniel Boone explores an ordinary man living in extraordinary times who was destined to settle and defend the beautiful, but often fiercely unforgiving, wilderness of Kentucky that became known as "the dark and bloody ground".

    Daniel Boone (November 2, 1734 [O.S. October 22] – September 26, 1820) was an American pioneer, explorer, woodsman, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Although he also became a businessman, soldier and politician who represented three different counties in the Virginia General Assembly following the American Revolutionary War, Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky. Although on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains from most European-American settlements, Kentucky remained part of Virginia until it became a state in 1791.

    As a young adult, Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this work, Boone first learned the easy routes westward. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775, Boone blazed his Wilderness Road from North Carolina and Tennessee through Cumberland Gap in the Cumberland Mountains into Kentucky. There, he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone. Boone served as a militia officer during the Revolutionary War (1775–83), which, in Kentucky, was fought primarily between the American settlers and British-allied Native Americans, who hoped to expel the Americans. Shawnee warriors captured Boone in 1778. He escaped and alerted Boonesborough that the Shawnee were planning an attack. Although heavily outnumbered, Americans repelled the Shawnee warriors in the Siege of Boonesborough. Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly during the Revolutionary War, and he fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782. Blue Licks, a Shawnee victory over the Patriots, was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, coming after the main fighting ended in October 1781.

    George Caleb Bingham's Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap (1851–52) is a famous depiction of Boone.

    Following the war, Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant, but fell deeply into debt through failed Kentucky land speculation. He briefly moved back to Virginia, in the newly formed Kanawha County, but ultimately moved back to Kentucky and his son. Then again frustrated with the legal problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799, Boone emigrated to eastern Missouri, where he spent most of the last two decades of his life (1800–20).


    Abduction of Boone's Daughter, painting by Karl Ferdinand Wimar, 1855/56, Amon Carter Museum of American Art

    Boone remains an iconic figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime, especially after account of his adventures was published in 1784, framing him as the typical American frontiersman. After his death, Boone became the subject of many heroic tall tales and works of fiction. His adventures—real and legendary—helped create the archetypal frontier hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, Boone is still remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen, even if the epic mythology often overshadows the historical details of Boone's life.

    CONTINUED AT LINK:

  • The New World Order
    by George Freund on November 1, 2019 at 6:04 PM
    66 Views - 0 Comments


    The New World Order is a book written by H. G. Wells, originally published in January 1940. Wells expressed the idea that a 'new world order' should be formed to unite the nations of the world in order to bring peace and end war. The New World Order also advocates a legal system that would protect the Rights of Man. It was republished in 2007 under ISBN 1-59986-727-3.

  • The Open Conspiracy
    by George Freund on November 1, 2019 at 5:43 PM
    53 Views - 0 Comments


    The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution was published in 1928 by H. G. Wells, when he was 62 years old. It was revised and expanded in 1930 with the additional subtitle A Second Version of This Faith of a Modern Man Made More Explicit and Plain. In 1931 a further revised edition appeared titled What Are We to Do with Our Lives? A final version appeared in 1933 under its original title. Many of its ideas are anticipated in Wells's 1926 novel The World of William Clissold.

    The book is, in Wells's words, a "scheme to thrust forward and establish a human control over the destinies of life and liberate it from its present dangers, uncertainties and miseries." It proposes that largely as the result of scientific progress, a common vision of a world "politically, socially and economically unified" is emerging among educated and influential people, and that this can be the basis of "a world revolution aiming at universal peace, welfare and happy activity" that can result in the establishment of a "world commonwealth". This is to be achieved by "drawing together a proportion of all or nearly all the functional classes in contemporary communities in order to weave the beginnings of a world community out of their selection." This will ultimately "be a world religion."

    Summary

    In the original edition, Wells begins by discussing religion, arguing that its essence is the subordination of self. "Modern religion," according to Wells, is the application of this human characteristic to the realisation of "better order in human affairs." What is contemplated is not a stable order, but rather a dynamic, changing state of affairs in which scientific research and creative activity become the chief preoccupations of a humanity that has solved the problems of subsistence, population control, and the suppression of war.

    Wells analyses anticipated sources of resistance to his Open Conspiracy in three lengthy chapters, and takes a hostile stance against the "false loyalties, false standards of honour, false religious associations" that are "vestiges of the ancient order" with which there can be no compromise.

    The Open Conspiracy's initial tasks are to be  explanation and propaganda, and  the organisation of open and explicit "refusal to serve in any war." Beyond that, he advocates the formation of thousands of ad hoc groups of all kinds, and anticipates that adherents of the movement will gradually separate themselves from existing society by forming their own schools and social life.

    Wells proposes the following "broad essential requirements" for "independent initiatives in the Open Conspiracy": " The complete assertion . . . of the provision nature of existing governments . . . ;  The resolve to minimise . . . the conflicts of these governments;  The determination to replace private local or national ownership of at least credit, transport and staple production by a responsible world directorate . . . ;  The practical recognition of the necessity for world biological controls, for example, of population and disease;  The support of a minimum standard of individual freedom and welfare in the world; and  The supreme duty of subordinating the personal life to the creation of a world directorate capable of these tasks and to the general advancement of human knowledge, capacity and power."

    While hoping that the progress of the movement can be pacifistic, Wells expresses a willingness to accept hardship and martyrdom if need be: "The vision of a world at peace and liberated for an unending growth of knowledge and power is worth every danger of the way."

  • The Time Tunnel S01 Ep28 The Kidnappers
    by Conspiracy Cafe on October 31, 2019 at 7:18 PM
    85 Views - 0 Comments


    The Time Tunnel is a 1966-1967 U.S. color science fiction TV series, written around a theme of time travel adventure and starring James Darren and Robert Colbert. The show was inspired by the 1964 movie The Time Travelers (AIP/Dobil), and was creator-producer Irwin Allen's third science fiction television series, released by 20th Century Fox Television and broadcast on ABC. The show ran for one season of 30 episodes. Reruns are viewable on cable and by Internet streaming. A pilot for a new series was produced in 2002, although it was not picked up.


    Project Tic-Toc is a top secret U.S. government effort to build an experimental time machine, known as "The Time Tunnel" due to its appearance as a cylindrical hallway. The base for Project Tic-Toc is a huge, hidden underground complex in Arizona, 800 floors deep and employing over 36,000 people. The directors of the project are Dr. Douglas Phillips (Robert Colbert), Dr. Anthony Newman (James Darren), and Lt. General Heywood Kirk (Whit Bissell). The specialists assisting them are Dr. Raymond Swain (John Zaremba), a foremost expert in electronics, and Dr. Ann MacGregor (Lee Meriwether), an electro-biologist supervising the unit that determines how much force and heat a time traveler is able to withstand. The series is set in 1968, two years into the future of the actual broadcast season, 1966-67.


    Project Tic-Toc is in its tenth year when United States Senator Leroy Clark (Gary Merrill) comes to investigate in order to determine whether the project, which has cost 7.5 billion dollars, is worth continuing. Senator Clark feels the project is a waste of government funds. When speaking to Phillips, Kirk, and Newman in front of the Time Tunnel, he delivers an ultimatum: either they send someone into time and return him during the course of his visit or their funding will cease. Tony volunteers for this endeavor, but he is turned down by project director Doug Phillips. Defying this decision, Tony sends himself into time. Doug follows shortly after to rescue him, but they both continue to be lost in time. Senator Clark returns to Washington with the promise that funding will not be cut off to the project, leaving General Kirk in charge.


    28 "The Kidnappers" 8433 Sobey Martin William Welch Planet orbiting Canopus March 24, 1967

    An alien time traveler from the future called OTT (acronym for "Official Time Traveler") (played by Del Monroe) appears in the Time Tunnel control room and abducts Dr. Ann McGregor. Ray discovers a metal punched card presumably dropped by OTT that has a set of space-time coordinates. Kirk directs Ray to transfer Doug and Tony to those coordinates, which place them on a planet in the system of the star Canopus in the year 8433 A.D. They are in a futuristic complex run by a curator, played by Michael Ansara, who has begun to compile all the data of the history of the Earth by extracting the memories of all its historical figures, rendering them walking "vegetables". As the first human time travelers, Doug and Tony are fitting subjects for the project. Ann's abduction was the "bait" to have them relocated there by the Time Tunnel. Shortly after their arrival they are reunited with Ann, and since the tunnel's fix on them is strong, Ray attempts to retrieve them. This is forestalled by OTT once again materializing in the tunnel control room to extract the time-spatial conversion unit. Doug, Tony, and Ann witness OTT's return to the alien complex with the unit. They now face the danger of being rendered vegetables like the three historical figures seen there—Cicero, Erasmus and Hitler, but they discover the aliens' significant vulnerability: like plants they derive sustenance from the light of their "sun" Canopus, becoming dormant at night. They fool the curator into thinking that they had eaten the drugged food pills that would have rendered them sedated for mind extraction. When the curator and the guards go dormant at night, Doug, Tony and Ann remain awake to retrieve the time-space converter and escape. They outwit and kill OTT, who by a power pack remains awake to patrol the alien complex; Ann sends herself back to the Time Tunnel control room with the converter by way of the alien time machine, and Doug and Tony are transferred away in the nick of time. This episode also makes use of Bernard Herrmann's music from the film The Day the Earth Stood Still.

    Note: This episode gives the distance to Canopus as 98 light years, a distance thought likely in 1967, whereas it is now known to be 310 ± 20 light years.

    I'm going to answer your question about our project.

    You'll find the concept fascinating.

    One of our subjects.

    We've just extracted from him the sum total of his personality.

    His memory, his knowledge, his motivation- everything.

    And that's your project? We are gathering for the first time the full and complete data on every phase of the history of the planet Earth.

    We've just completed our work on the subject.

    We now have comprehensive information on the psychology of tyrants.

    Fascinating.

    You might even recognize the subject.

    He was retrieved from a bunker in Berlin an instant before he attempted suicide.

    Why are you doing this to us? Everything you know and sense and feel will also remain forever in our data files.

    You should be pleased.

    Actually, it's a practical form of immortality.

    The show switches to the cloud. Your immortality will be there. Your personality, memory, knowledge, motivation- everything will be ripped from your mind and stored in the cloud. This is the Sentient World Simulation revealed in predictive programming in 1967. 

    The New World Order 2020: A Cybernetic Hive Mind Matrix controlled by Avatar Gods in the Cloud

    Sentient world: war games on the grandest scale

    Psychotronic and Electromagnetic Weapons: Remote Control of the Human Nervous System

    Sentient World Simulation (SWS)


  • My Father, the Artist
    by Conspiracy Cafe on October 31, 2019 at 3:20 PM
    73 Views - 0 Comments

    Inquisitor host Chris Cella speaks with former LAPD Homicide Detective Steve Hodel. Years after retiring, Steve fell into the strangest murder investigation of his career.


    Elizabeth Short (July 29, 1924 – January 14 or 15, 1947), known posthumously as the "Black Dahlia", was an American woman who was found murdered in the Leimert Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Her case became highly publicized due to the graphic nature of the crime, which included her corpse having been mutilated and bisected at the waist.

    A native of Boston, Short spent her early life in Medford, Massachusetts and Florida before relocating to California, where her father lived. It is commonly held that Short was an aspiring actress, though she had no known acting credits or jobs during her time in Los Angeles. She would acquire the nickname of the Black Dahlia posthumously (after the owner of a drugstore in Long Beach, California told reporters that male customers had that name for her), as newspapers of the period often nicknamed particularly lurid crimes; the term may have originated from a film noir murder mystery, The Blue Dahlia, released in April 1946. After the discovery of her body on January 15, 1947, the Los Angeles Police Department began an extensive investigation that produced over 150 suspects, but yielded no arrests.

    Short's unsolved murder and the details surrounding it have had a lasting cultural intrigue, generating various theories and public speculation. Her life and death have been the basis of numerous books and films, and her murder is frequently cited as one of the most famous unsolved murders in American history, as well as one of the oldest unsolved cases in Los Angeles County. It has likewise been credited by historians as one of the first major crimes in post-World War II America to capture national attention.

    CONTINUED AT LINK:

  • The Last Farewell ~ Roger Whittaker
    by George Freund on October 30, 2019 at 5:10 PM
    82 Views - 0 Comments


    Roger Whittaker (born 22 March 1936) is a British singer-songwriter and musician, who was born in Nairobi to English parents. His music is an eclectic mix of folk music and popular songs in addition to radio airplay hits. He is best known for his baritone singing voice and trademark whistling ability as well as his guitar skills.

    He is widely known for his version of "Wind Beneath My Wings" (1982), as well as his own compositions "Durham Town (The Leavin')" (1969) and "I Don't Believe in 'If' Anymore" (1970). American audiences are most familiar with his 1970 hit "New World in the Morning" and his 1975 hit "The Last Farewell", the latter of which is his only single to hit the Billboard Hot 100 (it made the Top 20) and also hit No. 1 on the Adult Contemporary chart. His final top-charting hit was "Albany", which scored No. 1 in West Germany in 1982.


    "The Last Farewell" is a song from 1971 by the British folk singer Roger Whittaker. Whittaker hosted a radio programme in The United Kingdom in 1971, backed by a full orchestra with arrangements by Zack Lawrence. Whittaker is quoted as saying that "one of the ideas I had was to invite listeners to send their poems or lyrics to me and I would make songs out of them. We got a million replies, and I did one each week for 26 weeks."

    Ron A. Webster, a silversmith from Birmingham, England, sent Whittaker his poem entitled "The Last Farewell", and this became one of the selections to appear on the radio programme. It was subsequently recorded and featured on Whittaker's 1971 album New World in the Morning (A Special Kind of Man in the US and Canada). Although the song failed to reach the music charts then, it is one of the fewer than forty all-time singles to have sold 10 million (or more) physical copies worldwide.


  • JUSTIN TRUDEAU ARREST UPDATE!!! NORMAN T...
    by George Freund on October 29, 2019 at 9:31 PM
    199 Views - 0 Comments

    https://mega.nz/#F!z10zyaIR!prWCMzxsqV3KbI4WIfAIqA

    PM gets a billion a month skimming. Money going to British Columbia Investment Management Corporation. The CIA was running The Pig Farm. There are Clinton connections.

    http://www.justiceforcanada.ca/

    http://www.stopbitburning.com/

    https://ca.gofundme.com/f/uphold-the-law

  • Pre-Sumerian Civilizations of Ancient Uk...
    by George Freund on October 29, 2019 at 8:23 AM
    72 Views - 0 Comments

    Tim and Lee are freelance translators examining the polysemantics of the ancient world through their research work in linguistic history, mytho-history, catastrophism and plasma science. Their long shared interest in megaliths and the associated panoramic and spiritual localities across Wessex and Wales was just the start of a long geographical pilgrimage towards researching the ancient history and associated cosmology of Sumer in Mesopotamia. Further research on Sumer eventually led to the pre-Sumerian Aratta and the Trypillian civilisation of ancient Ukraine. Following fieldwork in Ukraine, Malta and Italy, they recently presented a paper to the Vatican Conference on the Cucuteni-Trypillia civilisation of Romania, Ukraine and Moldova and have contributed to books on that culture. Both are engaged in international collaborative research on anomalies found in radio-isotope decay within granites that have been linked to cataclysmic plasma events recorded in the petroglyphs of ancient man.

    Ancient Aratta The World's first Civilisation


  • The Border S3 EP1 The Dead
    by George Freund on October 29, 2019 at 8:09 AM
    57 Views - 0 Comments

    DIRECT LINK:

    http://hd.today/watch/pxw4oLGz-the-border-season-3.html

    The Border is a Canadian drama that aired on CBC Television and 20 other TV networks worldwide. It was created by Peter Raymont, Lindalee Tracey, Janet MacLean and Jeremy Hole of White Pine Pictures. The executive in charge of production is Janice Dawe. Episodes in the first season were directed by John Fawcett, Michael DeCarlo, Ken Girotti, Kelly Makin, Brett Sullivan and Philip Earnshaw. The first season had a total budget of 20 million dollars, with about 1.5 million dollars per episode.


    The series is set in Toronto and follows agents of Immigration and Customs Security (ICS), a fictitious agency described as being created by the Government of Canada to deal with trans-border matters including terrorism and smuggling.


    27 1 "The Dead" Brent Sullivan Janet MacLean October 8, 2009

    Layla is buried with RCMP honours while Gray is suspended from ICS duties after Kessler and Carver are heavily wounded from the shootout between heavily armed mobsters and Turcott Solutions agents. Gray goes rogue to avenge Layla and his late father Douglas by taking out the remaining mobsters left alive led by Andriano Frantangelo. At the same time, Louise Tilden conducts an investigation at ICS into determining whether Gray was responsible for the shootout.


  • U.S Army Activity in the U.S. Biological...
    by George Freund on October 28, 2019 at 5:47 PM
    53 Views - 0 Comments


    The United States biological weapons program began in 1943. It was replaced by the United States biological defense program.

    Early history (1918-41)

    The United States biological weapons program officially began in spring 1943 on orders from U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt. Research continued following World War II as the U.S. built up a large stockpile of biological agents and weapons. Over the course of its 27-year history, the program weaponized and stockpiled the following seven bio-agents (and pursued basic research on many more):

    Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)

    Francisella tularensis (tularemia)

    Brucella spp (brucellosis)

    Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever)

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE)

    Botulinum toxin (botulism)

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

    Throughout its history, the U.S. bioweapons program was secret. It was later revealed that laboratory and field testing (some of the latter using simulants on non-consenting individuals) had been common. The official policy of the United States was first to deter the use of bio-weapons against U.S. forces and secondarily to retaliate if deterrence failed.

    In 1969, President Richard Nixon ended all offensive (i.e., non-defensive) aspects of the U.S. bio-weapons program. In 1975 the U.S. ratified both the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)—international treaties outlawing biological warfare. Recent U.S. biodefense programs, however, have raised concerns that the U.S. may be pursuing research that is outlawed by The United States. Initial interest in any form of biological warfare came at the close of World War I. The only agent the U.S. tested was the toxin ricin, a product of the castor plant. The U.S. conducted tests concerning two methods of ricin dissemination: the first, which involved adhering the toxin to shrapnel for delivery by artillery shell, was successful; the second, delivering an aerosol cloud of ricin, was proven less successful in these tests. Neither delivery method was perfected before the war in Europe ended.

    In the early 1920s suggestions that the U.S. began a biological weapons program were coming from within the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS). Chief of the CWS, Amos Fries, decided that such a program would not be "profitable" for the U.S. Japan's Shiro Ishii began promoting biological weapons during the 1920s and toured biological research facilities worldwide, including in the United States. Though Ishii concluded that the U.S. was developing a bio-weapons programs, he was incorrect. In fact, Ishii concluded that each major power he visited was developing a bio-weapons program. As the interwar period continued, the United States did not emphasize biological weapons development or research. While the U.S. was spending very little time on biological weapons research, its future allies and enemies in the upcoming second World War were researching the potential of biological weapons as early as 1933.

    CONTINUED AT LINK:



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